Claude Levi-Strauss wrote The Elementary Structures of Kinship in 1949. This book will challenge original perceptions of kinship and how it applies to human kind. The chapters on Dual Organization and Alliance and Decent are my personal favorites. These are very dense discussions of differing kinship systems, anthropologically speaking. For those of us who will have to pursue non-Anglo lineages, studying this publication is a must.
Couple it with The Beastie Boys Check Your Head.
Want more? Try this too: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3804311?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents and http://www.ams.org/samplings/feature-column/fcarc-vanuatu